In Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) the blood cells erythrocytes, thrombocytes and certain lineages of leukocytes fail to mature and subsequently these defective cells accumulate, leading to cytopenia which can include erythropenia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia (Germing, 2013). MDS represents a group of at least eight disorder subtypes.

MDS presents as cytopenia, but not all cytopenia is MDS. The diagnostic workup for cytopenias begins by ruling out nutritional, autoimmune, infectious, toxic, and neoplastic causes. When the cause of cytopenia is not explained by these factors or by concomitant illnesses the term “unexplained cytopenias” is used (Osman, 2021).
MDS is diagnosed by morphological studies of peripheral blood and bone marrow with cytogenetics to identify nonrandom chromosomal abnormalities. The diagnostic criteria for MDS includes dysplasia in at least 10% of cells in any hematopoietic lineage, increased myeloblasts, or MDS-defining cytogenetic abnormalities detected through karyotyping (Figure 1).